December 11, 2007

Dedication to Emperor Haile Selassie I by Emperor Tewodros Ethiopian Library

His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie the First, Emperor of Ethiopia, King of Kings, Elect of God, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, 225th Consecutive Ruler of the Solomonic Dynasty.
Girmawi Kedamawi Haile Selassie, Neguse Negest Ze Etiyopiya, Tseyum Egziabher, Moa Anbessa Ze Imnegede Yehuda, 225gna Negassi Ze Solomonawi

Emperor Haile Selassie's Uniform Riband Bars 1974 and the Emperor in his later years (from Ethiopia Reaches Her Hand Unto God by Copley and forward by Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie 1988)

Emperor Haile Selassie was a world wide traveler here seen with the Japanese in 1956. I would like to point out that the media usually prints his name as Selassie. This is a big error. The name Haile Selassie is one single name. Henceforth through out this section Haile Selassie will be printed the Ethiopian way, that is the correct name. Since this is a throne name too (or baptismal name) there is no last name or so-called ancestral name associated with Haile Selassie. Teferi is his given name and his father's name is Mekonnen, which is his father's given first name. It sounds complicated because in reality it is very simple. In Ethiopia only first names exist and only recently have people began to use the given names of their grandparents as an ancestral name

The Emperor in 1955 by Sandford

This photo was taken by the Swiss Sven Tillge-Rasmussen in 1930 in the book Abessinien I Krig. The author was from a group of Red Cross regiment provided by the Swiss during the invasion of Ethiopia by the Fascists in 1936.

Ras Teferi in 1925 taken by Powell, a traveler throughout East Africa.

Ras Teferi in 1925 taken by Powell. The throne is now at the National Museum in Addis Abeba. Empress Zewditu authorized Ras Teferi as Prince regent and heir apparent to the throne of the Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah.

Ras Teferi just before his coronation as Haile Selassie I Emperor (Atse) of Ethiopia. (Pankhurst frontipiece. Economic History of Ethiopia).

Emperor Haile Selassie before Fascist invasion in 1935 from a book by Princess Asfa Yilma. It is suggested by the author that this is his favorite portrait.

Haile Selassie (1935) in coronation garb. Emperors had live lions and the tiger indicates foreign influence. Westerners visited Ethiopia during Fascist saber-rattling!(Ernest Work 1935)

Regent Ras Teferi and Empress Zewditu on the Throne of Ethiopia (1930's) from Frank Hayter's Gold of Ethiopia,1936. Frank was a gold prospector eager to make money in Ethiopia and was known to hunt wildgame. The scepter (Sendek in Amharic) in Ras Teferi's hands appears to be of foreign design. Ethiopian Scepter is a simple staff.

A portrait for the American people by Ras Teferi in 1927 (The Last of Free Africa, MacCreagh, 1928). It is apparent from the different portraits that Ras Teferi was careful not to duplicate his wardrobe for different visitors to the Empire.

Emperor Haile Selassie around 1930. Reuters reprisentative Dunckley was in Addis to check out the country of Haile Selassie and Ethiopia before the Fascist invasion.

Emperor Haile Selassie as Ras Teferi about 1926. The period before the fascist invasion was visited by many journalists and travelors and so-called Explorers to see the (so they thought) the last of free Abyssinia. Regardless Haile Selassie took this opportunity to make friends. James Baum had previously titled the book Savage Abyssinia but in in his later edition titled it Unknown Ethiopia.

This photo by Bergsma from Rainbow Empire 1932. He was a surgeon at Teferi Mekonnen Hospital at the American Mission in Addis Abeba under the auspices of the United Presbyterian Church of North America.

Official portrait of Haile Selassie I from "For God and Country" by Della Hanson, an Adventist teacher and wife of an Adventist school developer at Akaki. She was asked by Haile Selassie to coordinate the Palace receptions and banquets as well as other assignments before during and after the Fascist barbarism.

Della Hanson and JanHoy before 1958 during a trip. Mrs Hanson worked in the palace for years and witnessed the fascist entry into Addis Ababa and evacuation of JanHoy to England and Geneva. She was there when JanHoy also came back from exile on May 5th.

Della Hanson snapped this when Haile Selassie was visiting the Adventist operated and owned Zewditu Metasebia Hospital which was adjacent to the Jubilee Palace (pre-1958).

Well trained Palace servants that Della Hanson directed on orders of Haile Selassie. She worked for 14 years directing every facet of events at the Jubilee Palace. The uniforms were colored green and red and yellow buttons.

Lielt Tsehai,Asfa Wossen, Leul Mekonnen and Haile Selassie. Behind HS I is probably Hakim Martin Workineh as he was the rep in England.(1964 Mosley)

from Haile Selassie The Conquering Lion Mosley 1964

from Haile Selassie The Conquering Lion Mosley 1964

from Haile Selassie The Conquering Lion Mosley 1964

from Haile Selassie The Conquering Lion Mosley 1964

Teferi Mekonnen at 5 and 7 years old with relatives Ras Imru and Teferi Belew

Teferi Mekonnen 11 years old

Official portrait of Haile Selassie as Representative at The League of Nations (Indiana University)

The Royal Family. Leul Mekonnen, The Emperor, Crown Prince Asfa Wossen and Princesses (Sandford 1955. The Lion of Judah shall Prevail)

Ras Teferi, Lij Iyasu and Ras Biru during their good times as feudal chiefs.

Mrs Sandford's picture of the royal family and palace ground pool about 1945

Haile Selassie in exile in England

Emperor Haile Selassie inspecting the troops in Addis Abeba about 1945. Sitted to his right is Prince Mekonnen who was always together on trips and official functions. It is said that Leul Mekonnen was the favorite son of the emperor.

The Palace Body Guards of the Jubilee Palace in 1945 called Kebur Zebegna in Amharic. They may be barefoot but they wore lion's mane on their heads! The body guards went through several changes, from traditional swordsmen to modern soldiers.

Some of Emperor Haile Selassie's trusted Rases in 1945. Click on photo for identity of these Rases!

The emperor was not known as a good horseman like Emperor Yohannes or Lij Iyasu. He was delicate short but full of dignity. He is known to release an aura that was very intimidating. It is said that one conspirator confessed his motive to asassinate him as he approached the emperor on the throne. Photo Emperor inspecting troops in Addis Abeba. (from Mittelholzer's Abessinien Flug, Zurich, 1934)

(from Mittelholzer's Abessinien Flug, Zurich, 1934)

The major event in 1930 was the transformation of Teferi Mekonnen from Ras to King to Emperor. He was Ras Teferi in early 1930, then crowned Negus Teferi on April 8th and by November 1930 became Emperor (or Qedamawi Haile Selassie Neguse Negest Ze Etiyopiya). In this photo from General Virgin's book The Abyssinia I Knew (1936), the Emperor and Empress Menen (Itegue) are shown in their coronation robes.

Emperor Haile Selassie in yet another uniform. Photo from General Virgin's book The Abyssinia I Knew (1936).

Negus Teferi days before his coronation (Schwab 1979)

Words of Wisdom and Prophecy for the League members in 1936 (Schwab 1979)

Haile Selassie at JFK funeral

Haile Selassie I in his office in 1945

December 10, 2007

Ethiopian Travelers 1790

Bertuch's Bilderbuch was designed to teach German kids about the physical world such as these Ethiopian travelers and their environment, geography, flora and fauna. In the above hand-colored etching published in Bilderbuch fur Kinder between 1792-1810, the travelers are seen at rest somewhere in Ethiopia. Could you identify the details presented here and determine the locality, culture and who these people where? A keen analyst can determine by close study of the trees and vegetation, land, clothing, weapons and the domestic animal as well as the hut in the background. Check it out and comment about it! Double click on image for closer examination.

TRANSLATION:from the German by Kebede Demissei Shell Petro-Chemical Engineer and Economist in Germany:

Notice about (Subject Matter) CXLVI/ Volume 7 No. 31

Abyssinians; Who are Taking A Rest on a Journey

Abyssinia is a great Kingdom on the Eastern coast of Central Africa; very mountainous but fertile and produces all sorts of agricultural products abundantly.
Although the population is of Arabic (Ethiopedia: Ethiopians are non-Arabic people) origin, most of the Abyssinians are followers of the Greek Christian Church (Ethiopedia: Ethiopian church is unique and closer to the Coptic Church of Egypt).
They are governed by a king called Negus (Ethiopedia: The country is governed by the emperor called Neguse Negest), who is an absolute ruler.
We did not know any pictures of the Abyssinians or of their traditional clothing and their customs. Thanks to the newest journey (around 1790) made by the English Lord Valentia and his companion Mr. Salt, this has become possible for the first time. Therefore, we are able to see in this picture traveling Abyssinians making a rest in a mountainous region of Abyssinia.
Their clothing consist of a white Shamma which is twisted around the body. Around both shoulders hangs sheep leather, without which no Abyssinian leaves his home. Their heads are not covered by anything. The upper class Abyssinians covers the lower part of the face with their Netelas. Their weapons consist of spears and shields. Only a few use a sort of rifle (loaded by the nozzle of rifle).
Their houses are huts with high pointed roofs like the one shown in the background of the picture.
When an Abyssinian gentleman travels, he is accompanied by a group of armed people. The picture shows most probably such an occasion. The horse (Ethiopedia: a mule) is reserved for the gentleman.

June 25, 2007

Ethiopians Destroyed Egyptian Army led by American Confederate Generals in 1875

This is the true story of how the Ethiopian army led by Atse (Emperor) Yohannes completely destroyed and annihilated an Egyptian army invasion force led by American Confederate generals. The humiliating part of this tragic event for the Confederate generals was that they had already been losers in the American civil wars which was fought over the question of slavery. A couple of generals have preserved the secrets of this events and how they despised the Egyptian Fellahin (peasants) and the barbarous Ethiopian patriots. This is the story of the battles of Gunda-Gundet and Gura and Arissa in which the Ethiopians completely annihilated the coalition armies of the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian and Confederate American generals as written by the American Colonel William M. Dye. The book is erroneously titled Moslem Egypt and Christian Abyssinia because it was more a war of the coalition forces of Egypt, the Ottomans and the Confederate Americans against Ethiopia. An illustration above from the book depicts an Ethiopian horseman, a Sudanese Kababich, an Egyptian soldier and an Ethiopian Oromo fighter surrounding Pompous Egyptian rulers. The shield with the lion probably represents the Ethiopian emperor's emblem as Yohannes had 4 lions with him at all time. The Egyptians and Ottomans hatched a new and secret idea of recruiting confederate American generals and officers in 1869. These corrupt and unaware Americans were secured by Blacque Bey, the Turkish minister at Washington D.C. A five year contract was drafted obligating the officers to serve against countries Egypt was at war with except the United States. The Americans eventually realized that they would be fighting against Christian Abyssinia (Ethiopia). The famous American general, W.T. Sherman recruited in confidence most of the forty eight Americans . One is left to ponder whether the American administration at that time was in fact knowledgeable about the conspiracy against Ethiopia that was hatching right under their noses. My opinion is that the United Stated knew about this conspiracy, assisted in the transportation and covered up the deal. This was also a good way to get rid of the defeated unemployed confederate officers in Washington D.C. and the South. Following are the names of those who served the Egyptians; Brigadier Generals, W. W. Loring (Leader of Group), C. C. Sible, Carrol Tevies, C. P. Stone, Major General Henry A Mot, Majors W. C. Campbell, Parrys, Hunt, Eugene Fehet, Chansler M. Martin, W. B. Hall, White, J. D. Dennison, Charles F. Loshe, Robert Schrryler, H. G. Prout, C. Macomb Mason, Colonels Alexander Reylands, T. G. Rheet, W. H. Jenifer, Beverly Kennon, Frank Reynolds, Vanderbilt Allen, R. C. Colston, W. McE. Dye, Robert M. Rogers, Samuel H. Lockett, Charles B. Field and McIvor, Lieutenant Colonels Sparow Purdy, C. C. Long, Will Ward, Wm. W. Dunlap, James Bassel, H. B. Reed, C. J. Graves, H. C. Derrick, Captains Freeman, James Morgan, David Essex Portal, Irgens, John Savage, Drs Johnson, W. H. William, Arlson, Professor L. H. Mitchell, Misters Middleton, Testaferrata and Garnard.
In 1875, Egyptian forces under Munzinger, a Swiss, were annihilated at Arissa. This was an attempt by Ismael Pasha of Egypt to bypass Yohannis and communicate with Menelik of Shoa. The Egyptians then tried a second trick again in 1875 under the Dannish Colonel Ahrendrup Bey (Bey being a Turkish promotion). This army of Egypt was again destroyed by Atse Yohannis at Guda Gundet in 1875. The third trick that the Egyptians and their Ottoman masters tried was to bring the Arab army of Egypt under the American Confederate Army of W.W. Loring. It is this story that is being told here because it was kept largely in the limelight due to the utter annihilation and humiliation of the “white” armies (The coalition forces of Egypt, Turkish Ottomans and Confederate Americans) by the African armies of Atse Yohannis. In effect Ethiopia, an African country, fought three continental armies of North American led by Colonel Loring, Asia Minor led by the Ottomans and quasi-African-Arab-European Egypt led by Ismael Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt. The plans of the Khedive to conquer the “Barbarian Habashis” and take their Blue Nile Basin was childish in itself as the Ethiopians with little arms that they possessed, had a more sophisticated and intelligent plan that sent the pitiful invaders running to the shoreline of Mistewa (Massawa) where they were having real fits of nervous breakdowns.
The notable battle on the plains of Gura was described by Dye and others very starkly. The Gura battle plan was arranged by the council of the Confederate Americans General Loring, Derrick and Dye and the Egyptian Osman Pasha. In this bloody fight, the Ethiopians overwhelmed the Egyptian-Ottoman-Confederate American coalition forces into oblivion. The invaders retreated after being mauled by the Ethiopian lions (literally mauled because there were 4 lions of Emperor Yohannes that growled and pawed the air in the heat of the battle). Colonel Dye describes the Ethiopian frenzy as “beating and blowing the “Negariths and Aimbeltas arousing their barbarous souls to fury and combat”. He further describes how Dejach Hagos of Shire was killed during the battle on horseback while the cowardly Egyptian Prince Hassan rides away on his horse to Massawa and his cavalry gallop away too. The Egyptian foot soldiers meanwhile staggered all the way to the sea shore following their leaders. Dye bitterly refers to the Egyptians as Fellahin which means peasants, not worthy of being soldiers, no doubt to relief himself of his own shortcomings. Indeed the American battle-hardened confederate armies were also fleeing the battle grounds. The infamous names of the defeated Americans were Long, Lockett, Hall, Dennison, Johnson, Wilson, Porter, Field, Martin, Dye, Colston, Stone, Gravis, Loshe, Lamson, Loring, Derrick, Wilson and Irgens.
One of the casualties of the battles against the Egyptians and their mercenaries were the imperial lions of Atse Yohannis, symbols of Ethiopia. A lion or two were lost at Gundet while two were lost at Gura. Colonel Dye reports that one of these lions was stuffed and placed near a tree for all to see its majestic powers.
Throughout the fight of preserving the Independence of the country, Ethiopia always had to deal severely with enemies from within the country itself. Thus one of the products from this victory was that the Egyptians settled for a more devious method of creating a division within the people of Ethiopia by using Ethnic tensions and propaganda ploys. The strangest character from this method was an opportunist Ethiopian known as Ras Wolde Mikael. His allegiance shifted between the Arabs and the Ethiopians. At times he laid waste to the Hamasein province and on other occasions he allied with Ras Alula to beat away the Egyptians. The method still continues in the 21st century with many Wolde Mekaels created by the Egyptians to once and for all attempt to revenge their defeat and bring powerful united Ethiopia into many weak fiefdoms that would endlessly kill each other.
The president of the United States at this time, Andrew Johnson, is described by the Miller Center as “Though Johnson was deeply committed to saving the Union, he did not believe in the emancipation of slaves”. Clearly as president he did not care about the destruction of Ethiopia and as such knew the on-goings of the Sherman-Turkish minister deal in Washington. Further more the Center describes him as “Andrew Johnson is largely viewed as the worst possible person to have been President at the end of the Civil War. He utterly failed to make a satisfying and just peace because of his racist views, his gross incompetence in federal office, and his incredible miscalculation of public support for his policies”. His Secretary of State was a certain Seward who “worked to prevent European recognition of the Confederacy during the Civil War”. There is no doubt that Seward, at the same time, instigated and gave the green light to the Confederate General Sherman to recruit and ship the secret mercenaries to Egypt to kill the Ethiopians and capture the Nile Basin and Maritime lands of Ethiopia. Sherman was also commander-in-chief of the United States between 1865-1883 and his recruiting of confederate armies against Ethiopia took place at this time. In the end however almighty Ethiopia prevailed.

April 25, 2007

Great Ethiopian Song Praises Cultural Festivities

Awdamet by Manalemosh Dibo
Basic Translation for Non-Amharic Speakers
A Joyous Song Praising Awdamet an Ethiopian Holiday

Its festival Times, its Awdamet, Its Amet Baal
A time to rejoice and praise thanks to Amlak, God
The majestic sun rises and casts its rays all over Ethiopia
And Awdamet begins early with the first crow of the rooster
Here and there and everywhere echoes the greetings of joys
The traditional kissing and hugging and endless salutations
Bow low bow low then kiss the knees the Elder's Knees!
On and On and On; Dehna Nachehu Dehna Nachehu?
How are you? How are the children, the cattle, the horses!
How is your health ? How is your business? Praise the Lord!
Egziabeher Yemesgen! Amen! Thanks Amlakthe Lord!
The whole country seems like one big big Family!
The festivities! The food! The visitors! The children!
Its one big Celebration of Life, A new beginning
Amlak Yemesgen, Praise and Thanks to God
The bonfire Demera, some big, some small
Light the evening skies and from a mountain top
Like earthly twinkling stars stud the valleys and plains
Shimmering until the coldness of night turns off the flames
Bahelachen, our culture, casts good wishes, good health
Oh praise Amlak the Lord Let us praise Enamesgen
The aroma of wheat bread , the dabo or Ambasha
Like butterflies on the soft wind of early spring
Whiffs its welcome scent through out the land!
Great Awdamet Praise be to Amlak, God
How can one forget the injera and wat
With its spicy and nourishing taste
The palate asks for more and more!
Wrap the healthy morsel with soft injera
Here Gursha my friend Here Gursha my kid
Here Gursha my love, How sweet the bond created!
Oh the Feresegna, the Horseman, that chicken breast
Aptly Reserved for the House head and the Elders
Eaten lavishly and the relish shared amongst all
Until the bones remains standing like a horse
Alas, the Feresegna has been consumed
Awdamet Awdamet Praise be to Amlak, God
Traditional music from traditional Masinko and Krar
Sending their thanks and joy to One creator, Amlak Hoy
The Iskista, the shoulder and head rhythmic movement
Now this way Now that way, Sliding and Gliding along
Enkwan Aderesachehu which means Happy Holidays
Destana Tsega which means Happiness and Blessings
Amlak Yemesgen, which means Praise to the Lord
Traditional Home Brewed drink, Pass it on!!
Tej honey mead and Tella traditional Beer
Cupping the hands to pour and to taste
How colorful the Ethiopian way!
Awdamet is happiness Awdamet is blessing
Amlak Yemesgen, which means Praise the Lord
The Ethiopian Coffee Ceremony, so old so vibrant
Yet so very new to so many on just this one earth
Roasting crackling beans turn brown then black
Sending their mystic smoke high high and high
Oh how sweet the smell, here breath the aroma
Above your head it goes and down your face
Each sweep of coffee cloud with their palms
For one or so last sniffing, one last blessing
Abul, First serving for the distinguished
Tona, the second serving for good luck
Baraka, the third serving for blessing
Yes Indeed Let's celebrate Awdamet
Awdamet, gift for the Healthy Aged
Awdamet is happiness and joy
Awdamet is a blessing
Today we rejoice and Praise
But the morrow we leave to God
Light up the Shammas, the candles
Let smoke rise from the Sended incense
Wear your new clothes Spray the perfumes
Scatter Findesha popcorn and chase evil away
Where green Ketema grass covers the floor
The green of the National Ethiopian Flag
The green of the rainbow, the first flag
A sign of spring and a New Life
Hand around still the Ambasha bread
Let the Children play Celebrate Awdamet
Let us once more praise the Lord Amlak
While the Elders shower us blessings
Merekat, good will and good wishes
Love each other Forgive each other
Its the Spirit of Awdamet A time of Joy
Awdamet is happiness Awdamet is blessing
Amlak Yemesgen, which means Praise the Lord
Enkwan Aderesachehu Amlak Yemesgen Praise the Lord

Rough Translation by Ethiopedia

March 15, 2007

Ethiopic: An African Writing System by Ayele Bekerie

This is a book with many purposes. Beyond accounting the history and principles of Ethiopic, this book challenges the accepted institutionalized theory that South Arabia is the origin of Ethiopic.

My favorite parts of the book was first, the strongly defended theory about the origin of the fisted right hand black power symbol; second, the explanation of the beginnings of b'al and the usage of grass during coffee ceremony; and thirdly, the study of Ethiopic as a pictographic form. There was a lot more to the book; for instance, the numeric system and its relation to the mystery of why God said that Abraham's name must be Abraham and not Abram ("Abraham corresponds to the sum total (numerical values of 60 (40+9+6+1+4), which when divided by 5 the total number of [Ge'ez] characters in the name reveals the 12 House of Israelites"). Also, the writing systems connection to astronomy and the calendar (there are 182 syllographs, which equals the total number of days in half a year or in one equinox). Oh, and the fact that animal skin was used for writing material because of the abundance of livestock in northern Ethiopia. Actually, animal skin is still used today - a friend of mine recently returned from Ethiopia with a large piece of cow skin, dried and then, partly shaved to be covered with a story from the Bible.

But back to my favorite parts of the book: Ayele Bekerie poses the question "What is the relationship between the African American or South African 'Black Power' salute and the ideographic character (Yä) Yäman, literally a [Ethiopic] term for a fisted right hand?

Another interesting point: Dr. Ayele links the use of grass (qétäma) to a 1700 BC script on a sandstone sphinx. On the sphinx is inscribed the term "B'alat" in the Proto-Sinaitic script (throughout the book he shows the close relationship between Ethiopic and Sinaitic writing). B'alat was the word for gods or goddesses of fire or sun. Quoted from Porphyry de Abstinentia, "Who inhabit the most sacred region made by the Nile, began first, from the vestal hearth, to sacrifice to the celestial gods, not myrrh, or cassia, or the first fruit of things...but grass, which, as a certain soft wool of prolific nature, they plucked with their hands."
For years, in Ethiopia B'al, a Ge'ez and Amharic term for holidays associated with "abundance, festivity, and wealth," is celebrated by decorating the floor with grass (qétäma).

The final point I must highlight: Ethiopic writing system has a pictographic foundation similar to the Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. Dr. Ayele examines the Proto-Sinaitic pictographic scripts and its "direct relationship" to the Proto-Ethiopic script.

It excites my nerves to know that their is a great probability that such an intelligent writing design existed in sub-Sahara Africa 2000 years BC. Dr. Ayele's work challenges Ethiopianist and Africanist to do more extensive and fair archaeological work on the continent of Africa below the Sahara Desert.

March 02, 2007

Quragna: A Banking System Outlawed by Iyyasu

Western banking systems use loans and interest rates to bind a creditor to a debtor. With increasingly high interest rates, often debtors are mentally, socially, and even physically chained to banks. Up to the 19th century, in Ethiopia, being chained to your creditor was literally a reality.

It is known as the quragna system and until the debt was paid off, the debtor was chained to the creditor. This harsh system was made illegal in the early 1900s by Lij Iyyasu of Wallo. A hundred years later, to the west of Ethiopia, a woman used the same creditor/debtor binding system on her 15 year old daughter. A mother was chained her run-away daughter "out of love" in Massachusetts, USA. You can find the article about the mother-daughter Quragna system at:

Another mother chained herself to a delinquent teenager in a fashion similar to the Ethiopian Quragna system where a creditor is chain to a debtor. Rebellious Tonya Kline was ordered chained to her mother Deborah Harter by order of Judge Wayne Creech of Charleston South Carolina. This prevented the daughter from going back to the detention center until sentencing day. The mother wanted her to be at home expecting her to wear an electronic monitoring device but the judge ordered the shackles instead as there was no law against it. In Ethiopia the Quragna Law was outlawed by Lij Iyasu at the turn of the century. Tonya had to wear a prisoners shackle (belt) which was chained to her mother by a chain. Tonya was only free when she had to go to the bathroom and the shower. Tonya’s crimes was truancy, shoplifting and breaking into homes. Tonya said “Its taught me a lesson” and “ I’m already straightened out”. A by-product of this chaining was that a stronger bond developed between the daughter and the mother. (You can find the article about the mother-daughter Quragna system in The Washington Post Dec. 15, 1995 by Bruce Smith of the Associated Press)

Learn more about Quragna by reading a book by Bahru Zewde A History of Modern Ethiopia.

Pictures are from the Ethiopian Tewodros II Ethiopic Library, the Washington Post and Boston Herald.